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RIESIGE WASSERWAND: Hurrikan \

A tropical cyclone is a rotating low-pressure weather system that has organized thunderstorms but no fronts (a boundary separating two air masses of different densities). The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale is a 1 to 5 rating based on a hurricane's sustained wind speed. This scale estimates potential property damage. The list of United States hurricanes includes all tropical cyclones officially recorded to have produced sustained winds of greater than 74 mph ( km/h) in the United States, which is the minimum threshold for hurricane intensity. The Great Hurricane of , also known as Huracán San Calixto, the Great Hurricane of the Antilles, and the Disaster, is the deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record.. An estimated 22, people died throughout the Lesser Antilles when the storm passed through them from October 10– The Miami hurricane, commonly called the "Great Miami" hurricane, was a large and intense tropical cyclone that devastated the Greater Miami area and caused extensive damage in the Bahamas and the U.S. Gulf Coast in September , accruing a US$ million damage toll.

Another point with reference the plan this work indicated the title needs a few words explanation. Sharpe, and other writers note. This forcibly brought out the instance a lawsuit being undertaken the instigation a ghost—a quaint item legal lore.

The judge who adjudicated, the jury and lawyers who took their respective parts such a case, would with equal readiness have tried and found guilty a person the charge witchcraft; and probably did far oftener than are aware.

And , account this remoteness, would seem have been prevented from acquiring and assimilating the varying and complex features which went make the witchcraft conception.

Consequently, when the Anglo-Normans came over, they found that the native Celts had 5. Had this country never suffered a cross-channel invasion, had she been left work out her destiny unaided and uninfluenced her neighbours, quite conceivable that some period her history she would have imbibed the witchcraft spirit, and, with the genius characteristic her, would have blended with her own older beliefs, and would have ultimately evolved a form that creed which would have differed many points from what was held elsewhere.

Another point arises connection with the advance the Reformation Ireland. Unfortunately the persecution witches did not cease the countries where that movement made headway—far from ; [ 9] the contrary was kept with unabated vigour.

But Ireland the conditions were different. The consequent turmoil and clash war gave opportunity for the witchcraft idea come maturity and cast its seeds broadcast; was trampled into the earth the feet the combatants, and, though the minority believed firmly witchcraft and kindred subjects, had not sufficient strength make the belief general throughout the country.

The diffusion books and pamphlets throughout a country district one the recognised ways propagating any particular creed; the friends and opponents Christianity have equally recognised the truth this, and have always utilised the fullest extent.

Now England from the sixteenth century find enormous literary output relative witchcraft, the majority the works being support that belief.

The evil that was wrought such amongst ignorant and superstitious people can well imagined; unbelievers would [ 11]converted, while the credulous would rendered more secure their credulity.

Richard Baxter, John Locke, Meric Casaubon, Joseph Glanvil, and Francis Hutchinson, ranged one side the other. Thus the ordinary Englishman would have reasonable grounds for being ignorant the power witches, the various opinions held relative them.

Ireland, the other hand with the solitary exception a pamphlet , which may may not have been locally printed there not the slightest trace any witchcraft literature being published the country until reach the opening years the nineteenth century.

All our information therefore with respect Ireland comes from incidental notices books and from sources across the water.

There confusion between cause and effect; books witchcraft would, naturally, the result witch-trials, but their turn they would the means spreading the idea and introducing the notice people who otherwise might never have shown the least interest the matter.

Thus the absence this form literature Ireland seriously hindered the advance the belief and consequent practice witchcraft. When did witchcraft make its appearance Ireland, and what was its progress therein?

With our present knowledge cannot trace its active existence Ireland further back than the Kyteler case ; and this, though was almost[ 13] certainly the first occasion which the evil made itself apparent the general public, yet seems have been only the culmination events that had been quietly and unobtrusively happening for some little time previously.

The language used the Parliament with reference the case would lead infer that nothing remarkable worthy note the way witchcraft sorcery had occurred the country during the intervening century and a quarter.

For another hundred years nothing recorded, while the second half the sixteenth century furnishes with two cases and a suggestion several others.

Others, possessing a little common sense, place the number three thousand, but even this far too high. Yet seems beyond all doubt that more witches were sent the gallows that particular period than any other English history.

Ireland seems have escaped scot- free—[ 14] least have not been able find any instances recorded witch trials that time. Probably the terribly disturbed state the country, the tremendous upheaval the Cromwellian confiscations, and the various difficulties and dangers experienced the new settlers would largely account for this immunity.

Notestein[1] shows that the tales apparitions and devils, knockings and strange noises, with which English popular literature the period filled, are indications a very overwrought public mind; similar stories Ireland, also indicative a similar state tension, some examples are given chapter.

Though the first half the seventeenth 7. Thus the seventeenth century was the period par excellence of witchcraft, demonology, and the supernatural Ireland.

After the period decadence reached, while between that date and nothing has been found, though may safely inferred that that blank was filled incidents similar the case Mary Butters and others, described the final chapter; and possibly too, [ 16] England, savage outbursts the part the ignorant and credulous multitude.

Witchcraft never flourished any great extent Ireland, nor did anything ever occur which was worthy the name persecution—except perhaps a sequel the Kyteler case, and the details which fear will never recovered.

The first part this statement must taken generally and not pressed too closely, based almost entirely negative evidence,.

Ireland can produce nothing like this, for, have already shown, all printed notices Irish witchcraft, with one possible exception, are recorded books published outside the country.

Nevertheless, all likely sources, both. The Elizabethan Act was passed account cases recorded and unrecorded that had arisen the country; while, human nature being what , seems likely that the very passing that Statute the Irish Parliament was itself a sufficient incentive the witches practise their art.

Moor, well from a consideration the prevalence the belief amongst all classes society, may[ 18] be inferred that far more 8.

Future students old documents may able bear out this statement, and supply information present unavailable. Nor all clear that torture was employed England similar trials.

Notestein[2] thinks that there are some traces , which cannot however certainly proved, except one particular instance towards the end the reign James I, though this was for the exceptional crime practising sorcery and therefore high treason against that too credulous king.

Was its use ever legalised Act Parliament either country? Scotland, the other hand, was employed with terrible frequency; there was hardly a trial for witchcraft sorcery but some the unfortunates incriminated were subjected this terrible ordeal.

Even late torture was judicially applied [ 20] extract evidence, for that year a Jacobite gentleman was questioned the boots. The repetition of torture was forbidden, indeed, but the infamous Inquisitor, James Sprenger, imagined a subtle distinction which each fresh application was a continuation and not a repetition the first; one sorceress Germany suffered this continuation less than fifty-sixtimes.

Nor was the punishment death fire for witchcraft sorcery employed any extent Ireland. How the two witches were put death are not told, but probably was hanging.

Subsequent the passing the Act the method execution would[ 21] have been that for felony. Between and more than six thousand sorcerers were burnt the diocese Strasburg, while, can credit the figures Bartholomew Spina, Lombardy a thousand sorcerers a year were put death for the space twenty-five years3] The total number persons executed various ways for this crime has, according 9.

This was especially true the earlier stages the movement when sorcery rather than witchcraft was the crime committed. For there a general distinction between the two 22] though many instances they are confounded.

Sorcery was, speak, more aristocratic pursuit; the sorcerer was the master the Devil until his allotted time expired and compelled him his bidding: the witch generally belonged the lower classes, embodied her art many practices which lay the borderland between good and evil, and was rather the slave Satan, who almost invariably proved a most faithless and unreliable employer.

For illustration from this country the broad distinction between the two the reader may compare Dame Alice Kyteler with Florence Newton.

Anybody might become a victim the witch epidemic; noblemen, scholars, monks, nuns, titled ladies, bishops, clergy—none were immune from accusation and condemnation.

Nay, even a saint once fell under suspicion; S. The books that have been consulted and which have contained information relative Ireland are, unfortunately, all too numerous, while those that have proved use are fully referred the text footnotes the present volume.

DAME ALICE KYTELER, THE SORCERESS KILKENNY The history the proceedings against Dame Alice Kyteler and her confederates account their dealings unhallowed arts found a.

Dame Alice Kyteler such apparently being her maiden name the facile princeps of Irish witches, was a member a good Anglo-Norman family that had been settled[ 26] in the city Kilkenny for many years.

The coffin-shaped tombstone one her ancestors, Jose Keteller, who died preserved S. The lady question must have been far removed from the popular conception a witch old woman striking ugliness, else her powers attraction were very remarkable, for she had succeeded leading four husbands the altar.

She had been married, first, William Outlawe Kilkenny, banker; secondly, Adam Blund Callan; thirdly, Richard Valle—all whom she was supposed have got rid poison; and fourthly, Sir John Poer, whom was said she deprived his natural senses philtres and incantations.

The Bishop Ossory this period was Richard Ledrede, a Franciscan friar, and Englishman birth. The following charges were laid against them.

They had denied the faith Christ absolutely for a year a month, according the object they desired gain through sorcery was greater less importance.

During all that period they believed none the doctrines the Church; they did not adore the Body Christ, nor enter a sacred building hear mass, nor make use consecrated bread holy water.

They offered sacrifice demons living animals, which they dismembered, and then distributed cross-roads a certain evil spirit low rank, named the Son Art.

They sought their sorcery advice and responses from demons. They also stated that her present husband, Sir John Poer, had been reduced such a condition sorcery and the use powders that had[ 29] become terribly emaciated, his nails had dropped off, and there was hair left his body.

The said dame had a certain demon, incubus, named Son Art, Robin son Art, who had carnal knowledge her, and from whom she admitted that she had received all her wealth.

The Chancellor reply wrote the Bishop stating that a warrant for arrest could not obtained until a public process excommunication had been force for forty days, while Sir Arnold also wrote requesting him withdraw the case, else ignore.

Foiled this, cited her son William for heresy. Upon this Sir Arnold came with William the Priory Kells, where Ledrede was holding a visitation, and besought him not proceed further the matter.

Finding entreaty useless had recourse threats, which speedily put into execution. This naturally caused tremendous excitement the The place became ipso factosubject interdict; the Bishop desired the Sacrament, and was brought him solemn procession the Dean and Chapter.

Seeing this, William Outlawe nervously informed Sir Arnold , who thereupon decided keep the Bishop closer restraint, but subsequently changed his mind, and allowed him have companions with him day and night, and also granted free admission all his friends and servants.

After Ledrede had been detained prison for seventeen days, and Sir Arnold having thereby attained his end, viz. Our " Historie" contains very meagre notices of the affairs of the next fourteen years, and we shall not trouble our readers with any account of them.

After the ample summary of the events of James' reign in Scotland, which we have laid before our readers, we trust they will be able to form a pretty correct estimate, not only of the character of James, but also of the characters of those who successively ruled Scotland from his birth to his departure for England.

The history of the period is, indeed, a history of the domination of faction ; one party or noble fell but to give way to another, and, in the bands of all, James seems to have been the mere puppet of royalty, in whose name Faction promulgated her own decrees, and perpetrated many crimes.

The youth of James gave great promise ; his manhood disappointed the most moderate expectations. While he was very young, Buchanan made him an excellent scholar; and, in other matters, he displayed a maturity of judgment far beyond his years.

Before he was eighteen, he had written many poetical pieces ; and though these, of course, are not free of juvenile conceits and weaknesses, we may safely pronounce them, on the whole, equal in merit to those of any other youthful poet at or prior to the times of James.

The first oootaiiu several sonnets, which were well worthy of being rescued from obliyion ; and we embrace this opportunity OF JAMES THE SEXT.

He seems literally to have resigned himself and his govern- ment to one favourite after another, with as much facility as these minions were changed.

If we except the family of Lennox, no person in the kingdom seems to have acquired his steady friendship.

We fear he was incapable of permanent regard. His measures displayed the same vacil- lating mind. What was done yesterday was often undone to-day; and there was no security that another change would not take place to-mor- row.

He was vain of his dignity and literary acquirements, and had very high notions of the rights of kings. Constitutionally a coward, he was — like almost all royal cowards — a tyrant.

He was selfish in his desires, and, if we except hunting, even in his amusements. He could dissemble, too, and resort to mean practices to accomplish his purposes.

In short, James was a sovereign at once weak and ambitious, unstable and tyran- nical; and however mediocre his poetry may be deemed, his claims on our regard are much stronger as a poet than as a man or a king.

It is probable, that to many of our readers the estimate we have formed of his character will appear partial and unjust. To such we have little to say in justification of ourselves.

We have enabled every reader to judge for himself; and we have merely exercised our right in offering an opinion on facts patent to all.

These facts we have detailed at as great a length of preserTing another, which, lo far as we know, has never met the public eye as a production of James.

It is prefixed to Hudson's translation of Du Bartas' History of Judith, published in Of Du Bartas' works James had a very favourable opinion, and betwixt the two authors poetical compliments were not wanting, as well as other marks of literary friendship.

Since ye immortaU sisters nine has left All other countries lying farre or nere : To follow him who from them all you reft.

And now has caused your residence be here ; Who, thoughe a straunger, yet he loode so dere This realme and me, so as he spoilde his awne.

And all the brookes, and banks, and fountains dere That be therein of you, as he hath shavvne In this his work : then let your breath be blavvne In recompence of this his willing minde.

On me ; that sine may with my pen be draune His praise : for though himself be not indjmde, Nor preaseth but to touch the lawrer tre, YeC well ht merits crown'd therewith to be.

For our- selves we can vouch, that we began and completed the collection and collation in the most impartial spirit ; and so far from consulting modern writers, we have never even tried to recollect what opinions they had formed.

If, therefore, the results we have drawn are either partial or unjust, our philosophy is at fault, and we must stand convicted of de- ducing erroneous conclusions from the premises before us.

LedU remains in obscurity, — Piticottie has not yet appeared in the costume to which he has an undoubted daim, — BaiUie was little better than mangled by Hume and Robertson, — and Sir JamtB Melvil merits a better fate than he has hitherto met with.

But we cannot enumerate in a note a tithe of the Scotish his- torical writers who demand the attention of the Oub, and who ought, with all speed, to take their places beside the Hutorie; nor is it necessary that we should, for we must not hope to rouse a proud national spirit within the breasts of its members, if, with the name, they do not daim the feelings of their illus- trious predecessor.

Our poetry will not sufier in the hands of Mr Laing, but he is most unoonscioiiably lasy. Scoti Magaximtp vol, xviii, , for Feb, By Gilbert Lainy Meason, Esq.

This most singular work, with a copy of which we have been favoured, furnishes us with a complete and very instructive history of the mining schemes which agitated the whole of Scotland in the l6th and 17th cen- turies.

The chief object of mining speculation in Scotland was the search after gold. That gold existed, and that it even now exists, diffused through certain mountains, particularly in the south of Scotland, there can be no possible doubt.

Its diffusion is, however, in such very sparing quantity, as to render it questionable if it ever has been detected in sitUy that is, actually embedded in its solid matrix.

The rock in which it is contained has, like all other rocks, been for ages subject to gradual disintegration, and it is from the result of this disintegration, namely, alluvial deposits, that grains of gold have been collected.

The native gold of Scotland has thus been indebted for its development to a process which has occu- pied a duration of time that cannot be estimated; and as it is probable that the investigation of the contents of this alluvium has been long since completed, and, consequently, the supply of Scottish gold exhausted, we must wait for a revolution of many more thousand years before the bed will be again sufficiently rich with gold once more to tempt the avarice of mankind.

Edin- burgli, VoL TiL p. From this work we shall make a few extracts. Atkinson's speculations, that the gold found in these places was the result of the general deluge, would accord with the views of many geolo- gists of the present day.

We shall quote what he says on the subject, particularly as it is introductory to a very interesting description of the mode in which the Scottish gold was formerly collected.

And thyther even our Scott's gold, which is now found in sterues, or in graines, and peices, did discend, or was washed downe.

And the most strangest of all is this : there is found naturall gold, linked fast IN SCOTLAND. And alsoe all these are called perfect compacted gold, made in the beginning of the worlde, and engendreth with these stones aforesaid amongst rocks and craighs, without the helpe of sonn, moone, or starrs.

James IV. In his reign the gold mines of Crawford Moor were said to have been first discovered. These mines were worked under the inspection of Sir James Pettigrew, who employed some Englishmen and Dutchmen to conduct the refining and melting department.

In the year a company of Germans obtained a grant from James V. In this reign three hundred men are said to have been employed for several summers in washing gold, of which they are reported to have obtained L.

Gold was also said to have been' got in the Pentland Hills, in Langham Water, in Megget Water, and other places. In the early part of the reign of James VI.

Nicholas Hilliard, jeweller to Queen Elizabeth, was also a mining adventurer of this reign. And then Cornelius went to viewe the said moun- taines in Clidesdale and Nydesdale; upon which mountaines he gott a small taste of small gold.

This was a whettstone to sharpen his knife upon ; and this naturall gold tasted so sweete as the honny or honny-combe in his mouth. And then he consulted with his freinds atEdenborough; and by his perswasions provoked them to adventure with him, shewing them first the naturall gold, which he called the temptable gold, or alluring gold.

It was in stemes, and some like unto birds' eyes and eggs: he compared it unto a woman's eye, which intiseth her joyes into hir bosome. And Cornelius so earnestly persuaded his late frequented friends in Scot- land, that he possessed them to adventure also with him.

Mr Robert Ballentine, then secretary, had ten partes. Abraham Peterson, a Dutchman of Edinborough, had ten partes. James Rede, a burgeons of Edinborough, had five partes.

And Cornelius reserved to himself, and his London freinds which adventured with him, alsoe ten partes. Much gold was then bought from the poor workmen for twenty shillings the ounce weight.

He is said by Atkinson to have brought with him certain artsmen from Eng- land, and others of his own countrymen, into Scotland, which were at London.

His success is thus noticed: — " At Winlocke-head he gott a IN SCOTLAND. With this natural! But he said unto the said kinge, that he thought it did engender and increase within the earth, and that he observed it so to do by the influ- ence of the heavens.

And he said that it increased, and grew more and more, but neither by the power of the sun, moone, nor starres, but by the omnipotent power of God, as he thought.

But it was not, nor is not, pure fine gold, without any allay, as was Opheire gold; but,' said he, M am certain that all this gold, viz.

But he swore all his workmen to keepe it secrett, and never to disclose the same unto the King of Scotland, nor his counsell : for so he had promised to do, at his departure from the Queene of Eng- land, if he found it.

The king was due to Foulis L. Sir Bevis Bulmer is another mining hero of this period, who, visiting Scotland under Queen Elizabeth's patronage, is said to have been very successful.

He had a patent from her majesty to obtain gold, and pro- cured it on Mannock Moor, Winlock Water, Robbart Moor, Fryer Moor, Glangonner Water in Clydesdale, Crawford Moor, at Langclouch, where he found gold in a vein of other substances, which they discovered in searching the rock, after discovering two pieces of gold five and six ounces in weight.

In a piece of brown spar, weighing two pounds, described to be like sugar-candy , a piece of gold, one ounce weight, was said to have been extracted.

Mr Bulmer conceived his operations to be of such consequence that he erected a stamping mill. And he had there sometimes great gold, like Indian wheate, or pearle, and blacked-eyed like to beanes.

It is also added, that " amongst all the gold which Mr Bulmer had gotten in Scotland, besides that which he had given amongst his friends, this is to be noted, that he presented unto the late Queene Elizabeth so much natural gold as made a porringer of cleene gold.

The monarch's cupidity for gold was at first greatly excited, as appears from the following very remarkable conversation which took place between him and Bulmer: — " And shortly after Bulmer said that his majesty conceived so good an opinion of the mines, that he had them much in remembrance amongst others his great and mighty busynesses , esteeming them to be none of the smallest, pleas- ing unto God, nor the least that God had ordeyned for man within the earth.

It is thought fitting that Bulmer shall be a superiour pr chief thereof, becanse of his trust and skill, which was liked of by the lords of the counsell in Scotland.

Therefore, lett Bulmer procure, or move twenty-four gentle- men within England, of sufficient lands and livings, or any other his friends of Scotland, that shall be willing to be undertakers thereof, and to be adventurers towards the discovery thereof, and see that all these gentle- men be of such sufficiencie in lands, goods, or chattelis, as the worst be worth L.

And all such gentlemen to be moved to disburst L. Ten tons of the various metals were sent to England to be assayed, and were refined by Atkinson then a refiner in the Tower of London.

Bulmer soon gave up these works to pursue other mining speculations; for in the year Sir William Alexander, Thomas Foullis, and Paulo Pinto, a Portuguese, got a grant of the mine of Hilderston on pajring a tenth of the refined ore.

The vein, however, eventually failed. We may now advert to Atkinson himself, the author of the very curious account of the mines of Scotland. He had served an apprenticeship to a refiner in London of gold and silver, and was admitted a refiner in the Tower of London, A.

He afterwards was engaged in Devon- shire in refining silver from lead ore. He was taught his mining skill by B.

He was afterwards tempted to leave his refining business, in order to explore gold mines in Scotland. He probably, as Mr Laing Meason supposes, wanted money for the undertaking, and therefore wrote to his majesty ; and after comparing several of the king's acts to those erf David and Solomon, suggested the opening of the gold mines of Scot- IN SCOTLAND.

The Scots' gold mines were compared by him to God's treasure-house, and named Ophir gold for their goodness. After this hypothesis he pays an extravagant, and almost profane compliment to King James, which he introduces by a sort of side-wind.

These rivers are also devided, by God's omnipotent power, into foure heads. The name of the second is called Short-clough water, upon Alwayne, within Clydsdale, upon Crawford Moore.

The name of the third river is Win- locke-head, or Wynlocke-water, upon Robbart Moore, within Nydsdale. The name of the fourth river is called Mannocke-water, upon Mannocke Moore, within Nydsdale.

He had already expended L. But it is now time to close this narrative. It appears that Sir Bevis Bulmer completely failed in his mining speculations, which was attributed to his having too many irons in the fire, and to his too great extravagance.

By such synister means he was impoverished, and followed other idle veniall vices to his dying day, that were not allowable of God nor man : and so once downe, aye downe ; and at last he died at Awstin- moore, in Ireland, in my debt L.

God forgive us all our sinnes! This curious history is now brought to a close. If these gold mines had been thought of in the year , it is not impossible but that their revival might have been contemplated, and that the minds of the mad projectors of that period might have been diverted from the golden mountains of Mexico to hunt for treasure on the cold and dreary plains of Crawford Moor.

The last project would have had this advan- tage, that it would have dispersed a few of the thousands which have been idly squandered away in distant speculations among our own coun- trymen.

IN SCOTLAND. The notes are highly valuable. They comprise, among various matters, a collection of early documents illustrative of the localities of other metals besides gold, said to have been found in Scotland.

We once were present at a juvenile exercise in the Latin tongue, where two of the disputants disagreed about the definition of a book, and where the president, in order to settle the question at once, with great solem- nity pronounced this axiom: — '' Liber est quicquid publici juris factum est.

Ergo: Mare liber est Porro Liber est quicquid publici juris factum est. Mulier vocata Mademoiselle Busk publici juris facta est quod prsesentium omnium testatur experientia.

Ergo: Mademoiselle Busk liber est. We need not add that the axiom was found somewhat too compre- hensive for. Written by Mr T. ROMANCE OF HAVELOK THE DANE.

We must speak more explicitly, as what we have to communicate may be a new piece of information to a great number of our readers. Some years ago there was first in England, founded by the Earl Spencer and some other noblemen and gentlemen of high rank and great wealth, the above alluded to institution, under the name of the Roxburghe Chib, and the Earl Spencer has since been its president.

The professed purpose of this highly respectable body, is to print ancient unpublished MSS. It is, in some respects, fortunate that their choice has, in many cases, fallen on such MSS.

This would be particularly ungrateful in us, as we occasionally are fa- voured with a sight of what the rest of mankind never see.

Ought we not, O reader, " Sublimiyenre sidera vertice? We, however, understand from the conclusion of Mr MadderCs intro- duction, that Havelok is in a manner publishedy making thus an excep- tion from the general rule ; and we may say that we are glad of it, as Havelok will be highly interesting for many an inquisitive reader.

Mr Madden is entitled to a very high compliment for the care, assi- duity, and research, which he has bestowed on this work.

He has looked for information in most likely places, and collected it with taste and judg- ment. The introduction perhaps might have been a little abridged, but the glossary is excellent.

Mr Madden would, however, have found his work easier if he had been more intimately acquainted with some other ancient languages of nothern Europe besides old English; the Icelandic or, which is the same, the ancient Danish would in particular have been of great service for his purpose.

We have not either been able to discover that Mr Madden has noticed the peculiar dialect in which the romance is written. Upon the whole, we have in Mr Madden's very learned intro- duction looked in vain for remarks on that subject, which, of all subjects connected with the ancient romance literature, surely is the most ivipor- tanty and on which this romance, in particular, seemed to claim investi- gation.

The subject to which we allude is language. It is not on account of their taste, their poetry, their metrical, or any other beauty, that the old English or Norman romances are particularly interesting to the scholar.

Only he who cannot read Homer, or Ariosto, or Chaucer, or Spencer, or the masterpieces in the ancient northern literature, will bother himself with the pedant's investigation, seeking for beauties where there are none, or few.

I have found it! I am sorry to find that so little is done for the romance literature of our country, sir.

I assure you it is very valuable. It would have been worthy of Mr Madden to use the opportunity afforded by this poem for researches respecting the old English tongue.

That subject is one of comprehensive utility, and one which is sure amply to repay the noblest efforts.

The ancient dialects of nations do not desert us in our path of inves- tigation where all other historical data fail : it is from them that we often must ascertain the abodes and migrations of ancient nations, their state of civilization, and mutual relationship.

It is of no moment, we humbly conceive, to our patriotic feeling now- a-days, whether the Norman or English romances are oldest, as the poetical glory which is to be reaped from these sources is so exceeding petiU and has been entirely superseded by the works of genius in latter ages.

Yet, for the history of language, this same fact is of moment ; and the history of language itself is of importance for every purpose for which history itself is so ; nay, the history of language is the most important part of the history of man, as speech is the very agent by which all the most important changes and revolutions in the world could have been effected.

But we must stop here, not having room for what we have to say. Still it is written in old English and not in Saxon, for here the whole Saxon system of inflexions is entirely gone.

As a relic, however, of a language so closely related to Danish Saxon, it is valuable, as pro- bably it is the only thing in its kind, unless Lazamon's translation of Wace's " Le Brut" be written in the same dialect.

Not having seen Lazamon's work, we cannot form any positive opinion on the subject. We shall here give a few of the old Danish words we observed during our cursory reading.

Lax, a salmoD,. Lieyken, to play,. Gad, a sharp-pointed Ertchebishop, Drepen, to kill,. And many others, for there is certainly more than a sufficient number to establish our theory.

In the same manner, and upon the same principle, we were enabled to ascertain the meaning of a few words which Mr Madden has left without interpretation in his glossary.

Thertekene, v. Kaske, active, Icelandic kaskir. Teyte, allert, Icelandic tetir. Nay more, the very construction is the same as in the old Danish, for as we find here kaske and teyte, so kaskir ek teytir is very common in Icelandic verse.

Led, , seems to be nothing else but the lid of some pot, or goblet, or pan. Therlj 1 78, is a manifest slip, instead of yerL The cha- racters used in this, as well as other old MSS.

Denemak, v. Thos her tile, v. Worn so hire to gode thoucte; And that he shuld hire yeue The best man that micthe live, The beste, fayreste, the strangest ok; That dede he him sweren on the bok.

And than shulde he Engelond, Al bitechen into hire bond. As soon as his burial was over. Earl Goderich lost no time in taking steps for the establishment of his own dynasty ; and, for this purpose, he first received oaths of allegiance from all classes of people in England.

But when the princess Ooldebaraw began to grow up he enclosed her in a strong castle, allowing no person to have any communication with her. Thinking his dynasty sufficiently well established, he went to the tower where he had enclosed the children, and nearly starved them to death, and, pretending to play with the princesses, he cut the throats of both of them; but when they were going.

Godard told him that the only guerdon he would get would be the gallows. There he lived several years, supporting himself and family by fishing, the prince, who now grew very stout and strong, assisting him in carrying the fish to market ; but as Grim found his means fast decreasing, he at length was obliged to send the prince adrift.

Almost naked, he came to the kitchen of Earl Goderich, where he was received as a helper, and soon distin- guished himself by his extraordinary strength ; when he had got on a new suit of clothes, which the kitchenmaid lent him, he was by everybody thought to be the most beautiful man that ever was seen.

When Gode- HAVELOK THE DANE. This feat being reported to Goderich, and that he withal was so eminently good tempered that he never did harm to any body, he thought that this person would fulfil all the requisites which Athelwold had stipu- lated for his daughter in her husband, and being low-born, as he thought, he would not be a person to claim the kingdom of England at his hands.

He then sent for the princess, and, much against her will, married her to Havelok. Being provided with nothing wherewithal to support himself and his wife, he instantly, after the wedding, went with her to Grimsby.

Old Grim was dead, but he found his children rather in a state of afflu- ence; they received him and the princess with open arms, offered to them all they had, and only wished to be servants to the princely couple.

Here Havelok had a dream or two, which Ooldehorow interpreted, and said that they foreboded that he was to become king of Denmark and England.

She moreover advised him instantly to set sail for Denmark. Thus far the first verses. The rest the imagination of the reader will easily supply.

All these are facts and events which every reader, who is at all acquainted with the romances from this age, will easily anticipate, as they have all a very similar conclusion, and almost in every case a fortunate one.

The poem is supposed to consist of 3, verses, but about 1 70 verses are wanting in the middle of it. The story of these cannot be supplied from the French romance, as the whole narrative is so very different.

To attempt to harmonize the incidents of this romance with any event in history, would be fruitless. There is nothing in Danish history in the remotest degree connected with them, or resembling them.

The undoubted historical fact to which Mr Madden alludes, that Hakon, the son of Harold 56 ROMANCE OF HAVELOK THE DANE.

Fairhair, King of Norway, was educated at the court of King Athelstane of England, bears no resemblance whatever to the romance of Havelok; nor are the circumstances in this fiction and that history at all similar.

Moreover, Denmark and Norway were at this period two distinct king- doms, and often at war between themselves; a fact which, in the thirteenth century, could not be unknown to any romance writer in England, as fre- quently Norwegians were the allies of the English when the Danes were their foes, and vice versa.

A detailed account of them is found in Snorro's Heimskeingla. The evil fame of this party was certainly far spread over Northern Europe in the century in which they flourished and the subsequent one, and no doubt reached Great Britain.

The romancer wanted only a foreign name to his outlandish king, and the name of the Norwegian party occurred to his memory as remarkably foreign-sounding, and therefore it was chosen.

The French romance gives to the same king the name of Gunter, which he doubtless borrowed from Germany. The French poet also wanted a foreign name, and nothing else.

Thus, though the name of Birkahein be of little con- sequence in itself, it helps us to ascertain the age of the English Haveloky at least thus far, that we can safely say this romance was written subse- quent to the period of the Norwegian Birkibein's.

One of them, Petronilla of Meath, was made the scape- goat for her mistress. The Bishop had her flogged six times, and under the repeated application of this form of torture she made the required confession of magical practices.

She admitted the denial of her faith and the sacrificing to Robert, son of Art, and as well that she had caused certain women of her acquaintance to appear as if they had goats' horns.

She also confessed that at the suggestion of Dame Alice she had fre- quently consulted demons and received re- sponses from them, and that she had acted as a " medium " mediatrix between her and the said Robert.

She declared that although she herself was mistress of the Black Art, yet she was as nothing in com- parison with the Dame from whom she had learnt all her knowledge, and that there was no one in the world more skilful than she.

She also stated that William Outlawe deserved death as much as she, for he was privy to their sorceries, and for a year and 38 DAME ALICE KYTELER a day had worn the devil's girdle l round his body.

When rifling Dame Alice's house there was found " a wafer of sacra- mental bread, having the devil's name stamped thereon instead of Jesus Christ, and a pipe of ointment wherewith she greased a staffe, upon which she ambled and gal- loped through thicke and thin, when and in what manner she listed.

This was the first instance of the punishment of death by fire being inflicted in Ireland for heresy. Whether or not Petronilla's fellow-prison- ers were punished is not clear, but the words of the anonymous narrator show us that the burning of that unfortunate wretch was rather the beginning than the end of persecution that in fact numerous other suspected persons were followed up, some of whom shared her terrible fate, while to others milder 1 Magical girdles were used for various purposes.

He says : " With regard to the other heretics and sorcerers who belonged to the pestilen- tial society of Robin, son of Art, the order of law being preserved, some of them were publicly burnt to death ; others, confessing their crimes in the presence of all the people, in an upper garment, are marked back and front with a cross after they had abjured their heresy, as is the custom ; others were solemnly whipped through the town and the market-place ; others were banished from the city and diocese ; others who evaded the jurisdiction of the Church were excommunicated ; while others again fled in fear and were never heard of after.

And thus, by the authority of Holy Mother Church, and by the special grace of God, that most foul brood was scattered and destroyed.

The Bishop accused him of heresy, had him excommunicated, and com- mitted prisoner to Dublin Castle. His innocency was believed in by most people, 40 DAME ALICE KYTELER and Roger Outlawe, Prior of Kilmainham, who also figures in our story, and who was appointed Justiciary of Ireland in , showed him some kindness, and treated him with humanity.

This so enraged the Bishop that he actually accused the Justiciary of heresy. A select committee of clerics vin- dicated the orthodoxy of the latter, upon which he prepared a sumptuous banquet for his defenders.

Le Poer died in prison the same year, , before the matter was finally settled, and as he was under ban of excommunication his body lay unburied for a long period.

But ultimately the tables were turned with a vengeance. De Ledrede was him- self accused of heresy by his Metropolitan, Alexander de Bicknor, upon which he appealed to the Holy See, and set out in person for Avignon.

He endured a long exile from his diocese, suffered much hard- ship, and had his temporalities seized by the Crown as well. However, by the storm had blown over; he terminated a lengthy and disturbed episco- pate in , and was buried in the chancel of S.

Canice's on the north side of the high altar. A recumbent effigy under an ogee- headed canopy is supposed to mark the last resting-place of this turbulent prelate.

In the foregoing pages we have only given the barest outline of the story, except that the portions relative to the practice of sorcery have been fully dealt with as per- tinent to the purpose of this book, as well as on account of the importance of the case in the annals of Irish witchcraft.

The story of Dame Alice Kyteler and Bishop de Ledrede occupies forty pages of the Camden Society's publications, while additional illus- trative matter can be obtained from external sources ; indeed, if all the scattered material were gathered together and carefully sifted it would be sufficient to make a short but interesting biography of that prelate, and would throw considerable light on the relations between Church and State in Ireland in the fourteenth century.

With regard to the tale it is difficult to know 42 DAME ALICE KYTELER what view should be taken of it. Possibly Dame Alice and her associates actually tried to practise magical arts, and if so, con- sidering the period at which it occurred, we certainly cannot blame the Bishop for taking the steps he did.

On the other hand, to judge from the analogy of Con- tinental witchcraft, it is to be feared that De Ledrede was to some extent swayed by such baser motives as greed of gain and desire for revenge.

He also seems to have been tyrannical, overbearing, and dicta- torial ; according to him the attitude adopted by the Church should never be questioned by the State, but this view was not shared by his opponents.

Though our sympathies do not lie altogether with him, yet to give him his due it must be said that he was as ready to be persecuted as to persecute ; he did not hesitate to face an opposition which consisted of some of the highest in the land, nor did fear of attack or imprison- ment which he actually suffered avail to turn him aside from following the course he had mapped out for himself.

The attitude of that Pope towards magical arts was no uncertain one. He believed himself to be surrounded by enemies who were ever making attempts on his life by modelling images of him in wax, to be subsequently thrust through with pins and melted, no doubt ; or by sending him a devil enclosed in a ring, or in various other ways.

Conse- quently in several Bulls he anathematised sorcerers, denounced their ill-deeds, excited the inquisitors against them, and so gave ecclesiastical authorisation to the reality of the belief in magical forces.

Indeed, the general expressions used in the Bull Super illius specula might be applied to the actions of Dame Alice and her party.

The attitude of this Pontiff evidently found a sympathiser in Bishop de Ledrede, who deemed it necessary to follow the example set by the Head of the Church, with what results we have already shown : thus we find in Ireland a ripple of the wave that swept over Europe at this period.

It is very probable, too, that there were many underlying local causes of which we can know little or nothing ; the discontent and anger of the disinherited children at the loss of the wealth of which Dame Alice had bereft them by her exercise of " undue influence" over her husbands, family quarrels, private hatreds, and possibly national jealousy helped to bring about one of the strangest series of events in the chequered history of Ireland.

We have of the entire proceedings an invaluable and contemporary account, or at latest one compiled within a very few years after the death of Petronilla of Meath ; while the excitement produced by the affair is shown by the more or less lengthy allu- sions to it in early writings, such as The 'Book of Howtb Carew MSS.

Mary's Abbey vol. It is also rendered more valuable by the fact that those who THE KYTELER CASE are best qualified to give their opinion on the matter have assured the writer that to the best of their belief no entries with respect to trials for sorcery or witchcraft can be found in the various old Rolls pre- served in the Dublin Record Office.

But when the story is considered with reference to the following facts it takes on a different signification. On the 2gth of September Wright says , Bishop de Ledrede held his first Synod, at which several canons were passed, one of which seems in some degree introductory to the events detailed in the preceding chapter.

In the Kyteler case occurred, one of the participants being burnt at the stake, while other incriminated persons were sub- sequently followed up, some of whom shared the fate of Petronilla.

In Adam Dubh, of the Leinster tribe of O'Toole, was burnt alive on College Green for denying the doctrines of the Incarnation and the Holy Trinity, as well as for rejecting the authority of the Holy See.

Again, in , two men were tried at Bunratty in co. Clare by Roger Cradok, Bishop of 1 Theiner, Vet. From a consideration of the facts here enumerated it would seem as if a consider- able portion of Ireland had been invaded by a wave of heresy in the first half of the fourteenth century, and that this mani- fested itself under a twofold form first, in a denial of the cardinal doctrines of the Church and a consequent revolt against her jurisdiction ; and secondly, in the use of magical arts, incantations, charms, familiar spirits, et hoc genus omne.

In this move- ment the Kyteler case was only an episode, though obviously the most prominent one ; while its importance was considerably en- hanced, if not exaggerated out of all due proportion, by the aggressive attitude adopted by Bishop de Ledrede against the lady and her companions, as well as by his 1 Westropp, Wars of Turlough Proc.

The anonymous writer, who was plainly a cleric, and a partisan of the Bishop's, seems to have compiled his narration not so much on account of the incident of sorcery as to show the courage and perseverance of De Ledrede, and as well to make manifest the fact that the Church should dictate to the State, not the State to the Church.

It appears quite possible, too, that other separate cases of sorcery occurred in Ireland at this period, though they had no historian to immortalise them, and no doubt in any event would have faded into insignificance in comparison with the doings of Dame Kyteler and her " infernal crew.

It is perhaps not generally known that at one time an Irish See narrowly escaped to its misfortune, be it said having a magician as its Chief Shepherd.

But some little time prior to this the Pope had set aside the election and " provided " a nominee of his own, one Master M.

Scot, to fill the vacancy : he however declined the proffered dignity on the ground that he was ignorant of the Irish language.

This papal candidate was none other than the famous Michael Scot, reputed a wizard of such potency that " When in Salamanca's cave Him listed his magic wand to wave The bells would ring in Notre Dame.

In the Border country traditions of his magical power are common. Boccaccio alludes to " a great master in necromancy, called Michael Scot," while Dante places him in the eighth circle of Hell.

The Four Masters in their Annals describe him as " a nobleman of wonderful bounty, mirth, cheerfulness of conversation, charitable in his deeds, easy of access, a witty and ingenious composer of Irish poetry, a learned and profound chronicler.

King James I of Scotland, whose severities against his nobles had aroused their bitter resentment, was barbarously assassinated at 1 Diet.

From a contemporary account of this we learn that the monarch's fate was predicted to him by an Irish prophetess or witch ; had he given ear to her message he might have escaped with his life.

We modernise the somewhat difficult spelling, but retain the quaint language of the original. In the midst of the way there arose a woman of Ireland, that clept herself as a soothsayer.

And she began, and told him as ye have heard of the King of Scots if he passed that water. As now the king asked her, how she knew that. And she said, that Huthart told her so.

And fast she knocked, till at the last the usher opened the door, marvelling of that woman's being there that time of night, and asking her what she would.

The usher came again to the chamber-door to the said woman, and there he told her that the king was busy in playing, and bid her come soon again upon the morrow.

It con- sists of a most indignantly-worded remon- strance from the Lords and Commons, which was drawn forth by the fact that some highly-placed personage had been accused of practising sorcery with the intent to do grievous harm to his enemy.

When making it the remonstrants appear to have forgotten, or perhaps, like Members of Parliament in other ages, found it convenient to forget for the nonce the Kyteler incident of the previous century.

Of the particular case here alluded to unfortunately no details are given, nor is any clue for obtaining them afforded us. The remonstrance runs as follows : " Also at the prayer of John, Archbishop of Armagh and others.

That whereas by the subtle malice and malicious suits of certain persons slandering a man of rank this land was entirely slandered, and still is in such slanderous matters as never were known in this land before, as in ruining 1 Ed.

Berry, D. With respect to the above we learn that Ireland was coming into line with England, for in the latter country during the fifteenth century charges of sorcery were frequently raised against persons of eminence by their political adversaries.

Nothing further on the subject is recorded until the year , under which date we find the following entry in the table of the red council book of Ireland : " A letter to Charles FitzArthur for sendinge a witch to the Lord Deputie to be examined.

The red council book has been lost, but a suc- cinct " table " of its contents, from which the above has been extracted, and which was apparently compiled by Sir William Usher, has been preserved in Add.

The next notice of witchcraft in Ireland occurs in the year , when a witch-trial took place at Kilkenny, though here again, unfortunately, no details have been preserved.

Thirty- six persons were executed, amongst whom were some good ones, a blackamoor and two witches by natural law, for that we find no law to try them by in this realm.

It can hardly have been for the colour of his skin, although no doubt a black man was as much a rara avis in the town of Kilkenny as a black swan.

Had the words been written at the time the unfortunate negro might well have exclaimed, though in vain, to his judges : " Mislike me not for my complexion The shadowed livery of the burning sun.

For 1 Carrigan, op. As yet the " natural law " held sway in Ireland, but very soon this country was to be fully equipped with a Statute all to itself.

Two Statutes against witchcraft had already been passed in England, one in , which was repealed six years later, and a second in Partly no doubt on account of the Kilkenny case of , and partly to place Ireland on the same footing as England, a Statute was passed by the Irish Parliament in For re- formation thereof, be it enacted by the Queen's Majestic, with the assent of the lords spirituall and temporall and the commons in this present Parliament assembled.

That if any person or persons after the end of three months next, and immedi- ately after the end of the last session of this present parliament, shall use, practise, or exercise any witchcraft, enchauntment, charme, or sorcery, whereby any person shall happen to be killed or destroied, 62 STATUTES that then as well any such offender or offenders in invocations and conjurations, as is aforesaid, their aydors or councelors.

Provided always, that if the offender in any of the cases aforesaid, for which the paines of death shall ensue, shall happen to be a peer of this realm : then his triall therein to be had by his peers, as is used in cases of felony and treason, and not otherwise.

And further, to the intent that all manner of practice, use, or exercise of witchcraft, enchauntment, charme, or sorcery, should be from henceforth utterly avoide, abolished, and taken away ; be it enacted by the authority of this present Parliament that if any person or persons.

It made no provision whatsoever for the use of torture to extract evidence, nor indeed did it offer any particular en- couragement to the witch hunter, while the manner of inflicting the death penalty was precisely that for felony, viz.

In some way Ireland was fortunate enough to escape the notice of that keen witch hunter, King James I and VI ; had it been otherwise we have little doubt but that this country would have contributed its share to the list of victims in that monarch's reign.

Another Act of the Parliament of Ireland, passed in , and designed to facilitate the administration of justice, makes mention of witchcraft, and it is there held to be one of the recognised methods by which one man could take the life of another.

For redress and punishment of such offences To prevent this it is stated that the Irish Parliament passed an Act forbidding the purchase of red swine.

We regret to say, however, that no such interesting Act is to be found in the Statute books. The belief in the power of witches to 1 Quoted in Journal of Royal Society of Antiquaries, 3rd series, vol.

Franais mentions a Swiss sorcerer, somewhat of a wag, who used to play the same trick on people. Indeed if we are to put credence in the following passage from Reginald Scot, quoted by Thomas Ady in his Perfect Discovery of Witches London, , a certain amount of witch persecution arose with reference to this point, possibly as a natural outcome of the Statute of Barnabe 68 THE EARL OF DESMOND Rich says in his description of Ireland : " The Irish are wonderfully addicted to give credence to the prognostications of Soothsayers and Witches.

A note in Dr. Hanmer's Collection speaks of " Tyrone his witch the which he hanged. We have already alluded to Gerald, the fourth Earl of Desmond.

His namesake, the sixteenth holder of the title, commonly known as the " Great Earl," who was betrayed and killed in , has passed from the region of history to that of mythology, 1 Ulster Journal of 'Archaeology -, vol.

Not many miles from the city of Limerick is a lonely, picturesque lake, Lough Gur, which was included in his extensive possessions, and at the bottom of which he is supposed to lie enchanted.

According to the legend 1 he was a very potent magician, and usually resided in a castle which was built on a small island in that lake.

To this he brought his bride, a young and beautiful girl, whom he loved with a too fond love, for she succeeded in prevailing upon him to gratify her selfish desires, with fatal results.

One day she presented herself in the chamber in which her husband exercised his forbidden art, and begged him to show her the wonders of his evil science.

With the greatest reluctance he consented, but warned her that she must prepare herself to witness a series of most frightful pheno- mena, which, once commenced, could neither be abridged nor mitigated, while if she spoke a single word during the proceedings the castle and all it contained 1 All the Year Round lor April Urged on by curiosity she gave the required promise, and he commenced.

Muttering a spell as he stood before her, feathers sprouted thickly over him, his face became con- tracted and hooked, a corpse-like smell filled the air, and winnowing the air with beats of its heavy wings a gigantic vulture rose in his stead, and swept round and round the room as if on the point of pouncing upon her.

The lady controlled herself through this trial, and another began. The bird alighted near the door, and in less than a minute changed, she saw not how, into a horribly deformed and dwarfish hag, who, with yellow skin hang- ing about her face, and cavernous eyes, swung herself on crutches towards the lady, her mouth foaming with fury, and her grimaces and contortions becoming more and more hideous every moment, till she rolled with a fearful yell on the floor in a horrible convulsion at the lady's feet, and then changed into a huge serpent, which came sweeping and arching towards her with crest erect and quivering tongue.

He then placed himself at full length on the floor and began to stretch himself out, longer and longer, until his head nearly reached to one end of the vast room and his feet to the other.

This utterly unnerved her. She gave a wild scream of horror, where- upon the castle and all in it sank to the bottom of the lake.

Once in seven years the great Earl rises, and rides by night on his white horse round Lough Gur.

The steed is shod with silver shoes, and when these are worn out the spell that holds the Earl will be broken, and he will regain possession of his vast estates and semi-regal power.

In the opening years of the nineteenth century there was living a man named Teigue O'Neill, who claimed to have seen him on the occasion of one of his septennial appearances under the following curious conditions.

O'Neill was a blacksmith, and his forge stood on the brow of a hill 72 THE EARL OF DESMOND overlooking the lake, on a lonely part of the road to Cahirconlish.

One night, when there was a bright moon, he was working very late and quite alone. In one of the pauses of his work he heard the ring of many hoofs ascending the steep road that passed his forge, and, standing in his doorway, he saw a gentleman on a white horse, who was dressed in a fashion the like of which he had never seen before.

This man was accompanied by a mounted retinue, in similar dress. They seemed to be riding up the hill at a gallop, but the pace slackened as they drew near, and the rider of the white horse, who seemed from his haughty air to be a man of rank, drew bridle, and came to a halt before the smith's door.

He did not speak, and all his train were silent, but he beckoned to the smith, and pointed down at one of the horse's hoofs.

Teigue stooped and raised it, and held it just long enough to see that it was shod with a silver shoe, which in one place was worn as thin as a shilling.

Instantly his situation was made apparent to him by this sign, and he recoiled with a terrified prayer. It is generally supposed that for the purpose of putting an end to his period of enchantment the Earl endeavours to lead someone on to first break the silence and speak to him ; but what, in the event of his succeeding, would be the result, or would befall the person thus ensnared, no one knows.

In a letter 1 written in the year , the Earl assumes a different appearance. We learn from it that as a countryman was on his way to the ancient and cele- brated fair of Knockaney, situated a few miles from Lough Gur, he met " a gentle- man standing in the waye, demanding if he would sell his horse.

He answered, yea, for 5. The gentleman would give him but 4, IO. The fellow 1 Lenihan, History of Limerick , p.

The fellow accepting of it, the other bid him come in and receive his money. He carried him into a fine spacious castle, payed him his money every penny, and showed him the fairest black horse that ever was scene, and told him that that horse was the Earl of Desmond, and that he had three shoes alreadye, when he hath the fourthe shoe, which should be very shortlie, then should the Earl be as he was before, thus guarded with many armed men conveying him out of the gates.

The fellow came home, but never was any castle in that place either before or since. Similar tales of horse-dealing with mysterious strangers are told in Scotland in connection with the celebrated Thomas the Rhymer, of Erceldoune.

CHAPTER IV A. BROWNE AND THE LOCKED CHEST AN interesting trial of a clergyman for the practice of unhallowed arts took place early in interesting and valuable, if for no other reason than that it is the first in- stance of such a case being discovered in the Rolls at the Record Office not counting those of the Parliament of , though we hope that it will not prove to be a unique entry, but rather the earnest of others.

Who say, that John Aston, late of Mellifont, Co. Louth, clerk, not having the fear of God before his eyes, but being wholly seduced by the devil, on December ist at Mellifont aforesaid, and on divers other days and places, wickedly and feloniously used, practised, and exercised divers invoca- tions and conjurings of wicked and lying spirits with the intent and purpose that he might find and recover a certain silver cup formerly taken away at Mellifont aforesaid, and also that he might understand where and in what region the most wicked traitor Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, then was, and what he was contriving against the said lord the King and the State of this kingdom of Ireland, and also that he might find out and obtain divers treasures of gold and silver concealed in the earth at Mellifont aforesaid and at Cashel in the county of the Cross of Tipperary, feloniously and against the peace of the said lord the King.

It is to be known that the aforesaid John was taken, and being a prisoner in the 78 CURED BY A RELIC Castle of the City of Dublin by warrant of the lord King was sent into England, therefore further proceedings shall cease.

Possibly the case was unique, and so King James may have been anxious to examine in person such an interesting specimen. If so, heaven help the poor parson in the grip of such a witch hunter.

In the year there comes from the County of Tipperary a strange story of magical spells being counteracted by the application of a holy relic ; this is preserved for us in that valuable monastic record, the Triumphalia S.

At Holy Cross Abbey, near Thurles, there was preserved for many years with the greatest veneration a supposed fragment of the True Cross, which attracted vast numbers of people, and by which it was said many wonderful miracles were worked.

Amongst those that came thither in that year was " Anastasia Sobechan, an inhabitant of the district of 1 Enrolment of Pleas, 6 James I, memb.

Kilkenny , tortured by magical spells veneficis incantationibus collisa , who at the Abbey, in presence of the Rev. Lord Abbot Bernard [Foulow], placed a girdle round her body that had touched the holy relic.

Suddenly she vomited small pieces of cloth and wood, and for a whole month she spat out from her body such things. The said woman told this miracle to the Rev.

Lord Abbot while she was healed by the virtue of the holy Cross. This he took care to set down in writing.

Robert Law, to whom we are deeply indebted for much of the matter in this volume, informs us in his Memorialls that in the first half of the seventeenth century there was to be found in Ireland a celebrated Doctor of Divinity, in Holy Orders of the Episcopal Church, who possessed extreme adroitness in raising the Devil a process that some would have us believe to be commonly practised in Ireland at the present day by persons who have no pretensions to a know- ledge of the Black Art!

Law also gives the modus operandi at full length. A 80 RAISING THE DEVIL servant-girl in the employment of Major- General Montgomerie at Irvine in Scotland was accused of having stolen some silver- work.

She then cast three of the feathers at him, and bade him return to the place from whence he came. This process she repeated three times, until she had gained all the information she desired ; she then went upstairs and told her mistress, with the result that the goods were ultimately recovered.

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